A. The application of science, especially to industrial or commercial objectives. We will define technology as the knowledge of the manipulation of nature for human purposes. Once risks are assessed, there can be clear vision on what course to take – to reduce or mitigate the risks through controls, to transfer the risk through insurance or to simply accept the risk as part of the operating environment.
To understand where technology ‘comes from’, what drives the innovation process, is of importance not only to those who are curious to understand the phenomenon of technology itself but also to those who are concerned about its role in society. The substantive theories of technology are indeed largely applications of scientific theories.
In its strictest definition would become the science, art and technology of inclusion or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and employment. According to Bunge, theories in technology come in two types: substantive theories, which provide knowledge about the object of action, and operative theories, which are concerned with action itself.
A turning point in the appreciation of technology as a socio-cultural phenomenon is marked by Samuel Butler’s Erewhon (1872), written under the influence of the Industrial Revolution, and Darwin’s On the origin of species. Philosophy of science is a transformation of epistemology in the light of the emergence of science.
The design process, the structured process leading toward that goal, forms the core of the practice of technology. Gene transfer from GM foods to cells of the body or to bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract would cause concern if the transferred genetic material adversely affects human health.